1. Physical Geography - Physical geography (or physiography) focuses on geography as an Earth science.
2. Biogeography - The study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through (geological) time.
3. Geodesy - Deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth in "space".
4. Hydrology - The scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets.
5. Meteorology - The interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere and weather.
6. Pedology - The study of soils in their natural environment.
7. Geomorphology - The scientific study of topographic features at the Earth's surface.
8. Human Geography - A branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
9. Cultural geography - The first traces of the study of different nations and cultures on Earth.
10. Economic geography - The study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.
11. Historical geography - The branch of geography that studies the ways in which geographic phenomena have changed over time.
12. Demography - The statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
13. Geopolitics - The study of the effects of geography on international politics and international relations.
14. Tourism geography - The study of travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and cultural activity.
15. Regional Geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region or country.
16. Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers in geography, like Global positioning systems (GPS).
17. Geology - An earth science comprising the study of solid Earth and tectonic plates.
18. Cartography - Studies the representation of the Earth's surface with abstract symbols (map making).