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Play Galaxy Formation Puzzle Online

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Interactive Galaxy Formation.

Galaxy Formation Puzzle is a short online game, to sort the stages of galaxy formation. Astronomy learning exercise to explore and study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Fun educational game, suitable for online lessons, interactive classes and exciting homeworks.

This fun astronomy game include the the following stages:
  • Gases (cooling)
  • Protogalaxies
  • Disk Formation (rotation)
  • Spiral Galaxy
  • Secular Evolution - central super massive black holes (SMBH)
  • Large Galaxies
  • Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN)
Galaxy Formation Puzzle

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How to play Galaxy Formation Puzzle.

There are 7 stages of galaxy formation top of the screen. Drag and drop them in the correct location in the galaxy evolution diagram. Make it for less than 8 tries for a good school mark.

Knowledge Achievements:
Know the stages of galaxy formation and get +1 Knowledge Level on Planeta 42.
Difficulty: Medium.

Formation and Evolution of Galaxies Puzzle Screenshot

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Class subject: Formation and Evolution of Galaxies.

The formation and evolution of galaxies is a complex process that occurs over billions of years. It involves a series of stages that are influenced by both cosmological and local physical processes. Here are the main stages of galaxy formation:
  • 1. Primordial Density Fluctuations
    Cosmic Inflation: Shortly after the Big Bang, the universe underwent a rapid expansion called inflation. This period magnified tiny quantum fluctuations in the density of matter.
    Formation of Dark Matter Halos: These density fluctuations led to regions with higher concentrations of dark matter. As the universe expanded and cooled, these regions grew through gravitational attraction, forming dark matter halos.
  • 2. Gas Cooling and Collapse
    Baryonic Matter: Within these dark matter halos, ordinary (baryonic) matter, consisting mostly of hydrogen and helium, began to cool and fall into the gravitational wells of the halos.
    Cooling Processes: The gas cooled through processes such as radiative cooling, where atoms emit radiation, losing energy and allowing the gas to collapse further.
  • 3. Protogalaxies Formation
    Collapse and Fragmentation: As the gas continued to collapse, it fragmented into smaller, denser clumps, forming protogalaxies.
    Star Formation: Within these protogalaxies, the gas clumps underwent further collapse to form the first stars. These first-generation stars, known as Population III stars, were massive and short-lived, playing a crucial role in enriching the interstellar medium with heavier elements through supernova explosions.
  • 4. Merging and Accretion
    Hierarchical Merging: Protogalaxies merged and accreted additional gas, growing in size and mass. This hierarchical merging process is a fundamental aspect of galaxy formation.
    Galaxy Morphologies: The mergers and interactions influenced the morphology of galaxies, leading to the formation of different types, such as elliptical and spiral galaxies.
  • 5. Disk Formation
    Angular Momentum: As gas fell into the growing galaxies, it conserved angular momentum, leading to the formation of rotating disks.
    Spiral Galaxies: In many cases, the rotating gas formed disk galaxies with spiral structures due to the differential rotation and the influence of density waves.
  • 6. Star Formation and Feedback
    Ongoing Star Formation: Continuous infall of gas and merging triggered ongoing star formation within galaxies. This process enriched the interstellar medium with heavier elements and dust.
    Stellar Feedback: The energy output from stars, supernovae, and active galactic nuclei (AGN) provided feedback mechanisms that regulated further star formation by heating the gas and driving outflows.
  • 7. Secular Evolution
    Internal Processes: Over time, galaxies evolved through internal processes such as bar formation, which can funnel gas towards the central regions, fueling star formation and AGN activity.
    Morphological Changes: Secular evolution led to changes in the structure and morphology of galaxies, such as the formation of bulges and the growth of central supermassive black holes.
  • 8. Quenching of Star Formation
    Gas Depletion: As galaxies age, they can exhaust their gas supply or expel it through feedback processes, leading to a decline in star formation.
    Environmental Effects: Interactions with the environment, such as ram pressure stripping in galaxy clusters, can also remove gas from galaxies, further quenching star formation.
  • 9. Late-Stage Evolution
    Passive Evolution: In the later stages, galaxies that have ceased star formation evolve passively, with their stellar populations aging and reddening over time.
    Galaxy Interactions: Even in the later stages, galaxies can undergo significant transformations due to interactions and mergers, which can trigger new bursts of star formation or lead to the formation of larger structures.
Gases Protogalaxies Disk Formation Spiral Galaxy Secular Evolution Large Galaxies Active Galactic Nucleus
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