In biology, a dominance hierarchy (formerly and colloquially called a pecking order) is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of animal social groups interact, creating a ranking system. A dominant higher-ranking individual is sometimes called an alpha, and the submissive lower-ranking individual a beta.
Alpha male and beta male, or simply put alpha and beta, are pseudoscientific terms for men derived from the designation for alpha and beta animals in ethology. They may also be used with other genders, such as women, or additionally use other letters of the Greek alphabet (such as sigma). The popularization of these terms to describe humans has been widely criticized by scientists.
Yet in popular psychology affiliation they may be described as such:
Alpha Male. Fred is a Leader, confident, outgoing, with good skill to talk and charismatic. An alpha male is a man who is highly intelligent, confident, and successful. Alpha males are generally considered great leaders and prefer to be in positions of power. Common traits alpha males possess include: Being in a position of power. Being comfortable with high levels of responsibility. These personality types don't hold back, tending to steer the pack in friendships and powerfully lead their teams in work.
Beta Male. Peter is responsible, respectful, reserved-shy, submissive and loyal. Beta males are fun, confident, and charismatic. They're also driven, and tend to be highly motivated. This makes them desirable as dating partners, and many women seek out betas as partners when they realize that they don't have the dating marketplace value to secure an alpha-male as a partner. A beta male is an adorable, reliable, and friendly guy. He could be the one next door. However, such guys may also have other stereotypical characteristics, such as introverts, lazy, nerdy, shy, and socially inactive.
Gama Male. Dariel is Adventurous, eager, curious, aware and empathetic.
Delta Male. Mike is Resigned, resentful, manipulative, lonely, The delta male is the 'normal' guy in the socio hierarchy. He isn't a leader like the alpha. He's relatively easy to please, and he takes pride in his role. Delta males often get married, have families, and fulfill normal roles in the community. In the socio hierarchy, a delta male is perhaps the most prevalent form of man. They're the foundation, and they're made up of 'regular' guys who go to work and make their own choices, participate in society, and find pleasure in it.
Omega Male. Jim is Self-assured, focused, driven, motivated, intelligent, diversified. The omega male is a fun-loving but non-aspirational individual who is reluctant to 'grow up' by embracing classic social imperatives like marriage, family and holding down a regular job.
Sigma Male. Karl is Cunning, self-confident, alone, likeable, calculated and funny. Sigma male is a slang term used in masculinist subcultures for a popular, successful, but highly independent and self-reliant man. Another term for a sigma male is a lone wolf. Sigma male is a term used to describe a man who is successful, charming, quiet and highly self-reliant.