The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism from diseases. It detects and responds to a wide variety of pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, as well as cancer cells and objects such as wood splinters, distinguishing them from the organism's own healthy tissue. Many species have two major subsystems of the immune system. The innate immune system provides a preconfigured response to broad groups of situations and stimuli. The adaptive immune system provides a tailored response to each stimulus by learning to recognize molecules it has previously encountered. Both use molecules and cells to perform their functions as following.
- 1. Hematopoietic stem cells - are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells. In adults, haematopoiesis occurs in the red bone marrow, in the core of most bones.
- ==Innate Immune System (rapid response)
2. Myeloid Progenitor Cell - Myeloids are progenitors precursors of red blood cells, platelets, granulocytes.
2.1. Mast Cell - A mast cell is a resident cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin.
2.2. Neutrophil Cell - Neutrophils are the most abundant type of granulocytes and make up 40% to 70% of all white blood cells in humans.
2.3. Eosinophil Cell - Eosinophils or acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates.
2.4. Basophil Cell - Basophils release the histamine in their granules during an allergic reaction.
- 2.5. Monocyte - Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
2.5.1. Macrophage - Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests anything that does not have, on its surface, proteins that are specific to healthy body cells.
2.5.2. Dendritic Cell - Dendritics are found in tissues, such as the skin. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They act as messengers between the innate and the adaptive immune systems.(*between)
- ==Adaptive Immune System (slow response)
3.Lymphoid Progenitor Cell - Progenitors of plasma cell characteristics.
3.1. Natural Killer Cell(*goes to Innate) - Also known as NK cells they play a role of eradicating infected cells.
- 3.2. T-Cell Progenitor - &The primary role of progenitor cells is to replace dead or damaged cells. In this way, progenitor cells are necessary for repair after injury and as part of ongoing tissue maintenance.
3.2.1. Memory T-Cell - Memory T cells are antigen-specific T cells that remain long-term after an infection has been eliminated.
3.2.2. Cytotoxic T-Cell - Like NK cell, T cell is a T lymphocyte white blood cell, that eradicate cells that are infected, altered or damaged in other ways.
3.2.3. Helper T-Cell - Helper T cells play a central role in normal immune responses by producing factors that activate virtually all the other immune system cells.
- 3.3. B-Cell Progenitor - &The primary role of progenitor cells is to replace dead or damaged cells. In this way, progenitor cells are necessary for repair after injury and as part of ongoing tissue maintenance.
3.3.1. Plasma Cell - Plasma Cell are white blood cells that originate in the lymphoid organs as B lymphocytes and secrete large quantities of proteins called antibodies in response to being presented specific substances called antigens.
3.3.2. Memory B-Cell - These cells develop within germinal centers of the secondary lymphoid organs. Memory B cells circulate in the blood stream in a quiescent state, sometimes for decades.