There are 8 major planets in Solar System and quite a lot Trans-Neptunian objects that still pop up more and more in wikipedia. Here are some properties of these planets that may distinguish them one from another:
1. Mercury appears somehow brown from space telescopes and is covered in craters.
2. Venus have this specific red appearance. For us, the Red Planet is Venus and not Mars.
3. Earth can not be mistaken with its green blue colors.
4. Mars appears somehow orange with its specific white polar ice cap.
5. Jupiter is recognised by its layers and the great spot, which is an insane storm.
6. Saturn is recognised by its visible planetary ring.
7. Uranus is often seen in uniform bright blue.
8. Neptune appear more dark blue anad also have small storm spot.
9. Pluto last images gives it a copper hue.
10. Sedna is only imagined by artists in somehow red spot patterns.
11. Io is recognised by its many volcanoes and yellow color.
12. Moon, as always, a grey cratered planet.